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Smog Season Brings Respiratory Problems
烟雾弥漫的季节

JAMES HATTORI, HOST
Hi everybody and welcome to NEXT @ CNN, today from San Francisco's historic Coit Tower atop Telegraph Hill. I'm James Hattori. This month marks the start of smog season, and well what we have behind us today is a little of our typical fog, six of the ten smoggiest metro areas in the U.S. are right here in California. That's according to the latest list put out this week by the American Lung Association. Natalie Pawelski reports on the best and worst of the list and what it means to your health.
詹姆士·哈托利,主持人
嗨,大家好,欢迎来到CNN《科技新时代》栏目,我现在位于旧金山电报山山顶的古迹科英特塔旁边。这个月标志着雾季的到来,而今天在我们身后并非传统意义上的雾。根据美国肺脏学会本周公布的排名表,美国污染最重的10大城市当中加州就占了6个。纳塔莉·帕韦尔斯基将报道该表上最好和最差的城市,以及对你的健康意味着什么。

NATALIE PAWELSKI, CNN CORRESPONDENT
From coast to smoggy coast, half of all Americans are living dangerously in places where air pollution levels, the report says, can be hazardous to your health.
纳塔莉·帕韦尔斯基,CNN特派记者
根据此项报告,从海岸到烟雾弥漫的海岸,一半的美国人正生活在能危及健康的空气中。

KIRKWOOD
There actually has been an increase of about 18 percent in the areas that are rated an F, which is unhealthy.
科伍德
事实上,空气污染达到损害健康级别F级的地区在以18%的速度增长。

PAWELSKI
For the third year in a row, the four smoggiest cities are in California: LA, Bakersfield, Fresno and Visalia. Houston, Texas came in fifth. Atlanta ranked sixth, followed by Merced, California; Knoxville, Tennessee; Charlotte, North Carolina and Sacramento. All these cities who were F's were at ground level ozone. Note most on the list are hot and sunny. Start with the pollution most cities have, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons from tailpipe emissions and smokestack pollutants,
mix in the heat and sunlight, and you get ozone. That's the main ingredient in smog. Ozone is especially dangerous for people with asthma, children and the elderly.
帕韦尔斯基
过去3年中,烟雾污染最重的4 个城市都在加州,洛杉矶、贝克斯菲尔德、弗雷斯诺、维萨利亚;得州的休斯敦排名第五,亚特兰大排第六,其后是加州的梅尔西德,田纳西州的诺克斯维尔,北卡罗来纳州的夏洛特和萨克拉门托。所有这些污染程度达F级的城市处于地表的臭氧区。请注意绝大部分榜上有名的城市都是天气炎热,光照充足。而制造污染的是汽车尾气和烟囱排出的氮氧化合物和氮氢化合物,它们在高温和阳光下混合,就会产生臭氧。这就是烟雾中的主要成分。臭氧对于哮喘患者、小孩和老人尤其有害。

KIRKWOOD
Because ozone is an irritant. It's like getting a sunburn on your airways and that affects everyone.
科伍德
因为臭氧是能对人体发生造成伤害,比如灼伤人的气管,这是每个人都躲避不了的。

PAWELSKI
But some Americans are breathing relatively freely in cities that earned an A, suffering no smog alerts from 1998 to 2000. That list includes Bellingham, Washington; Colorado Springs, Colorado; Duluth, Minnesota; Fargo, North Dakota; and Flagstaff, Arizona. Also on that clean list, Honolulu, Laredo, Texas; Lincoln, Nebraska; McAllen, Texas; Salinas, California; and Spokane, Washington. Some of these cities are relatively low smog because of climate of geography. Others have less traffic or fewer industrial sources of pollution.
帕韦尔斯基
1998年至2000年, 在某些空气质量为"A"级的城市中,一些美国人还能相对来说自由地呼吸。这些城市包括华盛顿州的伯林翰、科罗拉多州的科罗拉多斯普林斯、明尼苏达州的德卢斯、北达科他州的法戈和亚利桑那州的佛莱斯达。在这个名单上还有夏威夷州的檀香山和德州的拉雷多、内布拉斯加州的林肯、德州的麦克艾林, 加州的萨利纳斯和华盛顿州的斯波坎。这些城市当中,有些是因为地理气候的原因,所以烟雾相对较低,另外一些是因为交通工具较少,或者工业污染源少。

KIRKWOOD
You can't do anything about the weather and the topography. What you have to address are the sources of hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions.
科伍德·帕韦尔斯基
对于天气和地理是无能为力的,你能对付的就是碳氢化合物和氮氧化合物的排泄源头。

PAWELSKIC
leaning up the sources of that pollution from the plants that power our homes and businesses to the tailpipes on America's increasingly crowded roads will not be easy.
帕韦尔斯基
要清除那些为家庭和商业提供能源而产生的污染物和美国日益拥挤的道路上的尾气排放,并非易事。

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